Grade Nine Physical Education

Students in grade nine complete the transition from modified versions of movement forms to more complex applications across all types of physical activities. This may include outdoor pursuits, fitness activities, dance and rhythmic activities, aquatics, individual performance activities, and games and sports (net/wall, striking/fielding, and goal/target). Students demonstrate the ability to use basic skills, strategies, and tactics in a variety of lifetime physical activities. Students demonstrate more specialized knowledge in identifying and applying key movement concepts and principles. Students will explain the importance of energy balance and nutritional needs of the body to maintain optimal health and prevent chronic disease. They self-assess their skill performance and develop a personal physical activity program aimed at improving motor skills, movement patterns, and strategies essential to performing a variety of physical activities. They apply their understanding of personal fitness to lifelong participation in physical activity. Students demonstrate independence in making choices, respecting others, avoiding conflict, resolving conflicts appropriately, and using elements of fair play and ethical behavior in physical activity settings. Students demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and abilities required to plan for and improve components of fitness and achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of personal fitness.

Motor Skill Development

9.1    The student will perform all basic movement skills and demonstrate movement and biomechanical principles in a variety of activities that may include outdoor pursuits, fitness activities, dance and rhythmic activities, aquatics, individual performance activities, and games and sports (net/wall, striking/fielding, and goal/target(s)).

  1. Demonstrate proficiency and refinement in locomotor, non-locomotor, and manipulative skills through appropriate activities (e.g., outdoor pursuits, fitness activities, dance and rhythmic activities, aquatics, individual performance activities, games and sports [net/wall, striking/fielding, and goal/target]).
  2. Design, implement, evaluate, and modify a ­practice plan for a self-selected skill, to include ­the motor learning process of analysis of performance; application of principles of movement and training; goal setting; and improvement of personal skills through practice, correction, practicing at a higher level, and reassessment.
  3. Apply the concepts and principles of levers, force, motion, and rotation in a variety of activities.
  4. Apply physiological principles of warm-up, cool down, overload, specificity, and progression.
  5. Apply biomechanical principles of balance, energy, and types of muscle contractions to a variety of activities.
  6. Demonstrate competency in one or more specialized skills in health-related fitness activities.

Anatomical Basis of Movement

9.2     The student will explain the structures and functions of the body and how they relate to and are affected by human movement.

  1. Explain and apply selected scientific principles, to include physiological (warm-up, cool down, overload, specificity, and progression) and biomechanical (levers, types of muscle contractions, and force) that aid in the improvement of movement skills.
  2. Analyze and evaluate proficient and efficient movement in relation to how movement is directed, to include the type of muscle action that directs a movement (concentric, eccentric, and isometric), the direction the body part moves relative to its joints (abduction, adduction, flexion, and extension), and planes of movement.
  3. Apply the concepts and principles of the body’s metabolic response to short- and long-term physical activity.
  4. Explain the body’s response to the principles of specificity, overload, and progression (SOP) in relation to frequency, intensity, time, and type of exercise (FITT).
  5. Explain the anaerobic respiration (ATP-PC and Lactic Acid System) and aerobic respiration systems used for energy during activity.
  6. Analyze movement performance, and utilize feedback to learn or to improve the movement skills of self and others.

Fitness Planning

9.3    The student will evaluate current fitness behaviors and demonstrate achievement and maintenance of a health-enhancing level of personal fitness by designing, implementing, self-assessing, and modifying a personal fitness program.

  1. Demonstrate program-planning skills by assessing and analyzing personal fitness levels, setting goals, devising strategies, making timelines for a personal physical fitness plan, and evaluating the components and progress of the personal fitness plan.
  2. Apply the FITT (frequency, intensity, time, type) principle and other principles of training such as overload, specificity, and progression, in accordance with personal goals to the personal fitness plan.
  3. Explain the characteristics, including scientific principles and concepts, of safe and appropriate muscular-stretching, muscular-strengthening, and cardiorespiratory exercise programs to improve the health-related components of fitness.
  4. Explain the relationship between heart rate, training zones, and exercise intensity, to include measures (e.g., heart rate monitors, pedometers, accelerometers) and appropriate training zones to meet exercise and personal fitness goals.
  5. Demonstrate appropriate techniques for resistance-training activities, machines, and/or free weights.
  6. Calculate resting heart rate, target heart rate, and blood pressure.
  7. Identify types of strength exercises (isometric, concentric, eccentric) and stretching exercises (static, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, dynamic) for personal fitness development (e.g., strength, endurance, range of motion).
  8. Define and describe terms and activities associated with fitness, to include set, repetition, isometric, isotonic, isokinetic, core, upper body, and lower body exercises.

Social Development

9.4     The student will explain and demonstrate the skills needed to be safe, responsible, and respectful in all physical activity settings.

  1. Identify and demonstrate proper etiquette, respect for others, integrity, and teamwork while engaging in a variety of activities.
  2. Explain the impact of sports and activities in developing respect for the unique characteristics, differences and abilities of peers.
  3. Apply conflict-resolution skills in physical activity settings.
  4. Identify an opportunity for social support in a self-selected physical activity.
  5. Apply communication skills and strategies that promote positive team/group dynamics.
  6. Apply problem-solving and critical-thinking skills in physical activity settings, both as an individual and in groups. 
  7. Apply best practices for participating safely in physical activity, exercise, and dance (e.g., injury prevention, proper alignment, hydration, use of equipment, implementation of rules, sun protection).
  8. Analyze and compare psychological benefits derived from various physical activities (e.g., decreased stress and anxiety, increased self-esteem, increased mental alertness, improved mood).

Energy Balance

9.5    The student will explain the importance of energy balance and evaluate current caloric intake and caloric expenditure to maintain optimal health and prevent chronic disease.

  1. Explain the body’s physiological response to sugar, sodium, and fat.
  2. Assess and analyze current energy balance, to include intake and expenditure, activity levels, food choices, and amount of sleep.
  3. Explain body composition, using body mass index (BMI) and other measures, the variety of body types, and healthy body weight.
  4. Design and implement a plan to maintain an appropriate energy balance for a healthy, active lifestyle, to include intake, expenditure (levels of intensity), and sleep.

Grade Nine Health

Students in grade nine integrate a variety of health concepts, skills, and behaviors to plan for their personal, lifelong health goals. These include awareness and consequences of risky behaviors, disease prevention, overall wellness, and identification of community health resources. Students demonstrate competence in their knowledge and skills. They see themselves as having an active role in creating a healthy lifestyle for themselves, for their families, and for the community.

Essential Health Concepts

  1. The student will apply health knowledge and skills to achieve and maintain long-term health and wellness.
    1. Identify and describe the major structures and functions of the endocrine system.
    2. Identify guidelines for sleep, rest, nutrition, and physical activity.
    3. Explain the body’s need for amino acids and fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins, the role of vitamin and mineral supplements, and daily values.
    4. Explain the relationship between body composition and healthy body weight.
    5. Analyze personal risk factors for diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.
    6. Identify types of pathogens that cause disease.
    7. Describe the importance of health habits that promote personal wellness.
    8. Explain how alcohol and other drugs increase the risk of injury.
    9. Analyze the deadly consequences of binge drinking.
    10. Identify behaviors that may contribute to intentional and unintentional injuries and result in permanent disabilities.
    11. Examine how the consequences associated with gang involvement could affect self, family, and community.
    12. Identify signs, symptoms, and sources of stress and anxiety at home, at school, and with peers.
    13. Describe the positive and negative impacts of social networking.
    14. Identify signs and symptoms of depression, risk factors for suicide, and risk factors for other self-destructive behaviors.
    15. Explain the relationship between body image and eating disorders.
    16. Evaluate how social environments affect health and well-being.
    17. Identify causes of conflict with friends and family.
    18. Examine the impact of global health issues on local communities

Healthy Decisions 

  1. The student will explain the impact of health risks and identify strategies and resources to limit risk.
    1. Identify health risks and other factors that affect the function of the endocrine system.
    2. Explain the physical, mental, social, and academic benefits of physical activity and the relationship between sedentary lifestyle and chronic disease.
    3. Analyze current research and scientific studies to interpret nutritional principles, research the accuracy of health claims for a variety of processed foods and/or dietary supplements, and analyze personal daily diet to determine if meeting daily values for amino acids, vitamins, and minerals.
    4. Identify health-related decisions that contribute to heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and other chronic diseases and conditions.
    5. Describe the prevalence, causes, and long-term consequences of unhealthy eating, sleep deprivation, and sedentary lifestyle.
    6. Describe the need for proper nutrition, sleep and rest, physical activity, and healthy body weight and other personal wellness behaviors, and develop a daily wellness plan.
    7. Identify common types of cancer, risk factors, and prevention strategies.
    8. Apply a decision-making process for selecting health and wellness products.
    9. Evaluate the effects of alcohol and other drug use on human body systems, brain function, and behavior, and describe health benefits associated with abstaining from the use of alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs.
    10. Develop a set of personal standards to resist the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other harmful substances, and other harmful behaviors.
    11. Determine strategies to protect vision, hearing, and dental health.
    12. Describe the benefits of organ donation.
    13. Explain short- and long-term consequences of inappropriate behaviors online.
    14. Analyze situations involving risk and risky behaviors (e.g., weapons use, impaired driving, swimming, speeding) that may result in permanent disability for self or others.
    15. Evaluate the long-term consequences of injury (e.g., permanent disability) and disease, and describe controllable and uncontrollable risk factors.
    16. Explain Virginia laws and responsibilities associated with weapon possession and gang involvement.
    17. Develop a personal system for coping with distress and stress.
    18. Identify appropriate coping and resiliency strategies to manage symptoms of stress, anxiety, loss, and depression.
    19. Demonstrate peaceful resolution of conflicts.
    20. Explain the importance of community mental health services.
    21. Discuss the causes, symptoms, harmful effects, and treatment of eating disorders.
    22. Evaluate strategies for improving the societal and environmental conditions that contribute to health.
    23. Identify global and local health-related environmental issues, including ways to prevent and manage asthma and allergies.
    24. Identify health-related social issues such as homelessness, underage drinking, and substance abuse.
    25. Evaluate how public health policies influence health and disease prevention.

       

      Advocacy and Health Promotion

  2. The student will demonstrate skills to advocate for personal and community health.
  1. Design a lifelong physical activity and wellness plan.
  2. Create a one-day meal plan that meets daily values for vitamins and minerals.
  3. Develop a personal plan to reduce or prevent injury, substance use, and communicable disease.
  4. Develop a personal plan for remaining free of communicable diseases.
  5. Promote community health promotion and/or disease prevention projects.
  6. Demonstrate adult and child cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), use of automated external defibrillator (AED), and first aid skills for bleeding, contusions, fractures, and anaphylactic shock.
  7. Demonstrate healthy decision-making strategies related to weapons.
  8. Create a message about the importance of avoiding gang involvement.
  9. Create strategies to manage deadlines.
  10. Discuss ramifications of sharing personal information through electronic media.
  11. Identify school and community mental health resources.
  12. Determine how to help a friend exhibiting signs of depression, anxiety, disordered eating, or other self-harming behavior.
  13. Utilize appropriate resolution skills to prevent, prepare for, and manage conflict in a variety of situations.
  14. Create an action plan to prepare for a natural disaster.
  15. Develop a long-term plan for self and/or family to positively impact the environment.

Personal Fitness I/II (elective)

Personal Fitness is an elective physical education course that focuses on fitness, strength training, physical conditioning, and lifetime health concepts, activities and knowledge to promote health and wellness. This course is structured to develop individualized knowledge of weight training and physical conditioning for the beginning student and the advanced student. The course requires mastery of training principles and thorough understanding of fitness center safety rules prior to participation in weight room laboratory experiences. The course content is presented so that teachers may select strategies and instructional techniques designed to improve muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Students will gain the necessary information and skills to plan and implement a personal fitness and conditioning program that includes skill- and health-related fitness components to achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness for a lifetime. Various training models will be presented that allow flexibility of instruction among diverse student needs. Students will continue to implement and modify personal fitness and conditioning programs.

Motor Skill Development

 

PF.1  The student will demonstrate mastery of movement skills and patterns used to perform a variety of strength training, physical conditioning, and fitness-based activities.

  1. Demonstrate proficiency in personal fitness (strength training, physical conditioning, and fitness activities), through execution of appropriate basic and advanced skills, use of knowledge related to an activity to enhance performance, development of motor skills for a high level of participation, consistent and correct performance of skills, understanding motor cues and how to correct performance problems, displaying effort to learn and apply new skills, participating confidently with peers, applying skills to the development of a personal fitness program, possessing necessary physical fitness for vigorous participation, and correct selection of appropriate exercises based on personal goals and ability.
  2. Explain the importance of and demonstrate proficiency in a variety of activities that contribute to improvement of each component of health-related and skill-related fitness.
  3. Explain the relationship between health-related fitness activities and health problems, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and joint pain.
  4. Demonstrate a variety of activities that contribute to improvement of each component of skill-related fitness.
  5. Demonstrate correct techniques, form, and exercise procedures when performing strength training, physical conditioning, and fitness activities and exercises.
  6. Describe and demonstrate a variety of assessment activities that contribute to the development and improvement of health- and skill-related fitness components and personal fitness goals.
  7. Apply movement principles and concepts to skill performance of strength training, physical conditioning, and fitness activities.

    Anatomical Basis of Movement

     

    PF.2   The student will describe major body systems and explain the effects of physical activity on the systems.

  8. Describe the muscular system, including identification of the major muscles/muscle groups of the body and their function.
  9. Describe exercises/activities that increase the strength and flexibility of the muscular system.
  10. Describe the cardiovascular system, including identification of organs and their functions.
  11. Explain the effects of physical activity and training on the muscular and cardiovascular systems.

     

    Fitness Planning

     

    PF.3   The student will create a personal fitness and conditioning program for skill- and health-related components of fitness.

  12. Plan and describe a personal fitness and physical conditioning program that includes skill- and health-related fitness components to achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness for a lifetime.
  13. Design, monitor, assess, and modify a personal fitness and physical conditioning program.
  14. Apply principles of training for planning and modifying levels of physical activity in personal fitness and physical conditioning plans.
  15. Evaluate a variety of strength-training programs and design a personal strength training program.
  16. Analyze different activities and sports for their contributions to the development of specific health- and skill-related fitness components.
  17. Use technology to assess, improve, and maintain personal health- and skill-related fitness levels.
  18. Evaluate fitness and physical conditioning programs, products, and services to become an informed consumer.

    Social Development

     

    PF.4   The student will demonstrate social-competency skills in physical activity settings.

  19. Explain and demonstrate appropriate etiquette that exhibits respects for self and others within school and recreational fitness activity settings.
  20. Demonstrate safe practices, rules, and procedures in a physical activity setting.
  21. Explain the importance of inclusive and helpful behaviors in school and recreational fitness activity settings.

    Energy Balance

     

    PF.5   The student will explain energy balance in relation to health-enhancing nutritional and activity practices.

  22. Analyze nutrient needs and sound nutritional practices associated with physical activity and fitness.
  23. Analyze the consequences and risks associated with an inactive lifestyle.
  24. Analyze the benefits gained from participation in strength training, conditioning, and fitness programs.
  25. Explain the role of nutrition and fitness in relation to weight management.
  26. Evaluate the risks of performance-enhancing (ergogenic) supplements.

 

Fitness Instructor (elective)

The purpose of the Fitness Instructor elective course is to provide students with the knowledge, skills, and experience needed to become certified in personal training, strength and physical conditioning, group fitness, or in other health fitness specialty areas. Students will learn to develop individualized programs with goals that are based on a variety of factors that affect one’s overall health, to include genetic and chronic health conditions, sports injuries, age and gender, level of fitness, and lifestyle factors. Students will gain knowledge and skills to help improve posture, movement, flexibility, balance, core function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular endurance and strength. Students will learn a variety of business skills, to include effective communication, leadership skills, marketing strategies, consumer advocacy, résumé writing, and interviewing skills. Students will also earn a certification in CPR and AED. 

 

Motor Skill Development

 

FI.1   The student will demonstrate mastery of the movement skills and patterns used to perform a variety of strength-training, conditioning, and fitness activities.

  1. Demonstrate correct movement skills and patterns for strength-training, physical conditioning, and fitness activities.
  2. Analyze movement activities for component skills and movement patterns.
  3. Describe and demonstrate activities specific to improving the skill-related components of fitness.
  4. Define and identify activities of daily living (ADL) as the tasks of everyday life.
  5. Apply movement skills and patterns to functional fitness activities that support ADL.
  6. Identify and describe advanced resistance-training techniques.
  7. Apply principles of exercise progression to improve fitness.
  8. Demonstrate correct and safe techniques and form when performing strength-training, physical conditioning, and fitness activities and exercises.
  9. Demonstrate proper use of fitness equipment, selectorized weight machines, and free weights.
  10. Demonstrate safety protocols and procedures for strength-training, physical conditioning, and fitness activities.
  11. Identify contraindications to advanced resistance-training techniques.
  12. Identify and describe factors that influence participation in physical activity and adherence to an exercise program.
  13. Explain principles that result in behavior change.
  14. Describe psychological factors that may influence a person’s adherence to an exercise program.
  15. Identify and apply strategies to increase adherence in an exercise program.
  16. Explain the role of the personal trainer in promoting an individual’s adherence to an exercise program.
  17. Identify and explain considerations for special populations.

 

Anatomical Basis of Movement

 

FI.2     The student will apply knowledge of anatomy and movement principles and concepts to skill performance in strength training, conditioning, and fitness activities.

  1. Identify the planes of movement and types of movement that occur in the frontal, sagittal, and transverse planes.
  2. Define common anatomical terms.

  1. Identify major bones of the skeletal system.
  1. Identify and describe types of joints, including hinge and multiaxial (ball and socket).
  2. Explain muscle structure and function, to include major muscles of the body, terms related to muscles, and muscle origins and insertions.
  3. Explain movements that result based on muscle origin and insertion.
  4. Explain how muscles contract, to include agonist and antagonist movements in relation to muscle contraction.
  5. Identify and explain curvatures of the spine.
  6. Perform and analyze postural evaluation of another individual.
  7. Perform and analyze movement evaluation for stability and mobility of the joints of another individual.
  8. Perform and analyze flexibility evaluation of another individual.
  9. Perform and analyze balance and core-strength evaluations of another individual.
  10. Identify contraindications to assessments of movement.
  11. Perform assessments to evaluate the health-related components of fitness.
  12. Perform assessments to evaluate the skill-related components of fitness.
  13. Identify contraindications to health-related and skill-related fitness assessments.
  14. Identify and explain different methods for determining body composition.
  15. Explain the benefits and challenges of different methods for determining body composition.
  16. Differentiate between recommendations for physical activity and training principles to meet goals for general health benefits, weight management, fitness improvements, and athletic performance enhancement.
  17. Explain the effects of acute and chronic exercise on aerobic and anaerobic energy systems.
  18. Explain the body’s response to cardiorespiratory exercise.
  19. Explain the body’s response to resistance training.
  20. Explain the body’s response to warm-up and cool down.
  21. Explain blood-pressure response related to acute exercise, chronic exercise, and changes in      posture.
  22. Explain reversibility or deconditioning and the effect on fitness and performance.
  23. Define common musculoskeletal injuries.
  24. Compare and contrast muscle fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) with    musculoskeletal injury/overuse.
  25. Explain inflammatory response and the healing process.
  26. Identify and describe upper-extremity injuries.
  27. Identify and describe lower-extremity injuries.
  28. Identify and explain exercise modifications appropriate when participant is injured.

 

Fitness Planning

 

FI.3    The student will plan and describe a personalized fitness and conditioning program for others that includes skill-related and health-related fitness components to achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness for a lifetime.

  1. Identify components of health/medical history.
  2. Identify limitations of health/medical history.
  3. Identify signs and symptoms common for cardiovascular, metabolic, or pulmonary diseases.
  4. Conduct health and exercise history with another individual.
  5. Develop SMART fitness goals with another individual based on fitness assessments and   personal desired outcomes.
  6. Apply FITT principle to improve or maintain cardiovascular and musculoskeletal fitness in   healthy adults, seniors, youth, adolescents, and pregnant women.
  7. Develop functional programming for stability, mobility, and movement.
  8. Develop a resistance-training program with appropriate progressions.
  9. Develop a cardiorespiratory-training program with appropriate progressions.
  10. Evaluate fitness programming for others to determine effectiveness.
  11. Identify contraindications of cardiorespiratory exercise.
  12. Define and explain exercises to improve range of motion, to include dynamic stretching, passive stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), and partner stretching.
  13. Identify contraindications of range of motion exercises.
  14. Describe different forms of mind-body exercise (e.g., yoga, Pilates, tai chi).
  15. Identify indications for use of mind-body exercise.
  16. Identify contraindications for mind-body exercise.

 

Social Development

 

FI.4    The student will accept responsibility for taking a leadership role as well as demonstrate the ability to follow, in order to accomplish group goals.

  1. Define and explain cultural competence and its importance in developing rapport with another individual.
  2. Demonstrate effective teaching techniques for working with individuals of different learning styles, motivation levels, and physical activity levels.
  3. Explain learning styles and instructional strategies, to include visual, auditory, and kinesthetic.
  4. Demonstrate effective and varied teaching techniques for a variety of exercises.
  5. Demonstrate and explain how to respond in an emergency situation.
  6. Identify signs of cardiac emergency.
  7. Demonstrate CPR and AED procedures for adults and children.
  8. Identify emergency situations requiring first aid.
  9. Demonstrate first-aid techniques used in emergency situations.
  10. Identify and describe universal precautions and personal protection used during CPR and first aid.

 

Energy Balance

 

FI.5    The student will explain energy balance.

  1. Identify and explain dietary guidelines based on USDA recommendations.
  2. Identify macronutrients used by the body for energy.
  3. Identify the number of kilocalories found in macronutrients that provide energy.
  4. Explain energy balance and relationship to weight gain, weight loss, or weight maintenance.
  5. Explain lipid and lipoprotein profiles.
  6. Explain the influences of nutrition and physical activity on lipid and lipoprotein profiles.
  7. Explain the importance of hydration.
  8. Explain how to maintain hydration in a physically active individual, including effective methods to rehydrate after exercise.
  9. Identify and describe common supplements and ergogenic aids used by individuals in training programs.
  10. Explain potential risks, benefits, and contraindications associated with use of supplements and ergogenic aids.
  11. Explain the relationship between body composition and health.
  12. Define terms related to body composition including body mass index (BMI), lean body mass, and fat mass.
  13. Explain influences on body composition including diet, exercise, and behavior modification.
  14. Identify and explain inappropriate weight loss methods.
  15. Identify and explain eating disorders including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
  16. Explain the female athlete triad.

 

Professional Responsibilities

 

FI.6     The student will identify and explain professional and legal responsibilities to manage a

personal business and be employed as a personal fitness instructor.

  1. Identify and explain requirements to become a certified personal fitness instructor and maintain certification, to include certification requirements, requirements to maintain certification, and resources for professional development to increase knowledge and skill and maintain certification.
  2. Identify and explain the role, scope of practice, and code of ethics of a personal fitness instructor.
  3. Identify and describe professional responsibilities of a personal fitness instructor.
  4. Identify and describe necessary facility maintenance.
  5. Explain and describe appropriate inspection and care of equipment to maintain safety and maximize use.
  6. Identify and describe appropriate facility supervision to maintain safety of users.
  7. Identify and describe legal considerations of working as a personal fitness instructor.